The prevention, detection and mitigation of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases involve both applying preventive controls in animal production as well as ensuring the safety, efficacy, quality, and appropriate use of vaccines, diagnostics and medicines through secure supply chains and health delivery systems.
Complex and fragmented supply chains, especially in countries and regions with limited regulatory and quality oversight, increase the likelihood of substandard, fraudulent or adulterated medicines entering the market. Poor quality medicines ensure microbial replication in the presence of drug pressure. Substandard and falsified medicines also contribute to lack of efficacy and adverse events, undermining trust in the health system. Inappropriate use of anti-microbials is another driver of AMR. Both poor quality medicines and inappropriate use are preventable and can be addressed through the development of robust regulatory and quality assurance systems, treatment guidelines and enforcement.
While there are major limitations in evidence and best practice in the human health sector, even less is known in the veterinary sector, both with respect to use and quality of antibiotics in animals, and effective controls. Further, environmental factors are beginning to come to light.