The use of antimicrobials accelerates the development and the spread of antimicrobial resistances (AMR), which contributes to the ineffective use of antimicrobial in humans and animals and finally poses a serious risk for public health. Monitoring antimicrobial consumption has been recognised as a key entry point for optimizing and rational use of antimicrobials which will contribute to a decrease in AMR.
The World Health Organization (WHO), in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations (FAO) and the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), has recommended to the countries to establish a system for monitoring antimicrobial consumption [ ] in line with Global Action Plan on AMR (GAP). In addition, the Political Declaration of the High-Level Meeting of the UNGA on AMR in September 2016 which calls for “Improve surveillance and monitoring of AMR and the use of antimicrobials to inform policies” [ ] puts pressure on developing countries to develop surveillance system and ensure a timely use for policy decision.
In addition, evidence from the surveillance of antimicrobial consumption (SAC) is essential for evaluation progresses in implementing the policy on optimizing use of antimicrobial.
The WHO established a manual for WHO methodology for a global programme on surveillance of antimicrobial consumption, as well as the OIE has recently reported on the use of antimicrobial agents in animals, which aimed countries to compile details quantitative data of antimicrobial consumption.
SAC has been well established in a number of high income countries, in particular in European Union, SAC structure and reporting is guided by ESAC and ESVAC using standard methodology allowing comparisons between countries. However, there is no such monitoring system in developing countries.